出自Thierry Ventadour – 从混乱的组织到协作的组织，进而到创新的组织的路径。
1+1<2: The first level of a just created group or organization is the Chaotic level. Everyone in the group does its best to reach an unshared, uncommon goal. This type of organization creates lots of waste, as mechanisms to work together are not defined.
1+1=2: The next step is to organize these mechanisms: who does what, what are the information exchanged between people or sub-groups. People cooperate to reach a common objective: provide a well-defined service or product. This is the Cooperation step.
1+1>2: Then, the group may need to provide something new, unusual, and different from what is usually provided by competitors: they have to collaborate to imagine new concepts, new functionalities, this is the Collaboration step.
Cooperative organization is well suited for stable, well known and already efficient process. A typical implementation is the Waterfall development process: each step is under the responsibility of one group who provides a deliverable. This deliverable is then used as an input for the next step, potentially under the responsibility of another group. These groups collaborate. If you need to improve this organization, you need to set up a separate group that will be in charge of improving the process: typically a process improvement project. Cooperative organizations are badly suited to improving themselves.
Collaborative organization is required when you do not have a suitable defined process (and you want to avoid chaos). People need to work together to allow innovative ideas to emerge. This is the objective of Agile methodologies. Scrum retrospectives performed by a self-organized team are a typical means to create innovative ideas. Improvement is a central on-board activity of Agile groups.
A typical example are off-shore testing groups, set-up in low cost countries with the objective of reducing cost. This objective (cost reduction) often differs from the development team objective which is to deliver functionalities fast which will fulfill users' needs (reduced time cycle, good quality). This cooperative organization often creates tensions between these two groups as their objectives are not aligned. A new way of working together has to be found. Only teams' members (from both groups) can define these new efficient practices, through a collaborative organization. The first step is to define common goals: it is the well-known Agile team charter.
Is Cooperative organization a requisite step for Chaotic organization that want to deploy a Collaborative organization through Agile methodologies? The answer has to be "No" as it is a request from our customers. It only means that the journey will be longer as these teams will have more to learn: An organization where requirements management is lacking will have to be more rigorous in tracking these requirement, before being able to work efficiently with its customers to improve requirements definitions.
Creativity requires rigorous teams to create value.
Is there a typo in the second paragraph? The end of the paragraph states "This is the Collaboration step". Should that it say "Cooperation step"?
Thanks for your comment, I corrected the typo.
Do you think that there is a correlation between these 3 levels (Chaos, Cooperation and Collaboration) and CMMI levels ?
Chaos is usually associated to the CMMI level 1.
Then, I don't think that CMMI makes any distinction between Cooperation and Collaboration.